Students are taken on a chromosome comparison "adventure", in which the banding patterns are compared on the chromosomes of humans and apes. Degrees of similarities, and some causes of their differences are explored. Inferences about relationships based on those similarities are also examined in a compelling way.
Anthropologists and evolutionary biologists agree that upright posture and the subsequent ability to walk on two legs was a crucial major adaptation associated with the divergence of the human lineage from a common ancestor with the African apes. Efficient upright walking required numerous changes in the anatomy of the limbs and pelvis and we are the result of the variations and selection pressures that forged this new ability. The ability to walk on two legs was later followed by other human evolutionary trends that lead to tool manufacture and the enlargement of the brain.